Introducción - Núm. 39, Enero 2024 - Revista Oasis - Libros y Revistas - VLEX 971438404


AutorMeliha Altun???k
CargoGuest Editor ? Revista Oasis
OASIS, ISSN: 1657-7558, E-ISSN: 2346-2132, N° 39, Enero - Junio de 2024, pp. 5-7
Introducción al dosier temático: el Sur global y la construcción de un nuevo sistema...
In 2023, Turkey is celebrating the 100th an-
niversary of the establishment of the Republic.
As with all such important turning points,
this is a time for both reection on what has
happened since, but also a discussion of what
could and should happen next. Turkey was
established as an heir to one of the greatest
empires of its time, the Ottoman Empire.
When the empire, already highly weakened,
was ultimately defeated in the First World War
and disintegrated, an Anatolian-based national
liberation movement under the leadership
of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) and his friends
fought a war of independence and succeeded
in negotiating a new treaty, the Treaty of Lau-
sanne on 24 July 1923, that is considered as
the founding document of the country. Soon
after, a new republic was proclaimed on 29
October 2023. Foreign relations of the new
republic in those early years of state formation
were summed up by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
as “peace at home, and peace in the world”.
Devastated by years of war and trying to
consolidate the new state, Turkey was able to
stay outside of the Second World War. Yet, fa-
ced with the Soviet threat right after the War,
it joined the Western bloc and became a mem-
ber of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
(NATO) in 1952. Being a member of NATO,
however, was not only a security guarantee for
Turkey, but it was also an armation of its fo-
reign policy direction since the establishment
of the Republic. Still, especially once opportu-
nities emerged in the shifting global context,
Turkey did not hesitate to establish a multi-
dimensional foreign policy and improved its
relations with several countries, including the
Soviet Union.
e end of the Cold War was another
turning point for Turkey’s foreign policy. In the
1990s, Turkey did not enjoy the so-called pea-
ce dividend like many other NATO members,
as it began to face new instabilities and threats,
especially in its immediate neighbourhoods.
Turkey faced conicts spreading in the Middle
East, Caucasus, and the Balkans, and yet tried
to deal with them playing the role of a stabiliser
and proposing several regional initiatives for
peace. is was a time when, despite the end
of the Cold War, Turkey and the US renewed
their partnership and cooperated in Turkey’s
neighbourhoods. e decade ended with the
Helsinki Summit where the European Union
accorded Turkey candidate status.
In the rst decade of the 21st century,
Turkey enjoyed economic growth and political
transformations that were reected positively
in its foreign policy. Turkey-EU accession
negotiations started in 2004. Turkey began
to focus on developing its economic relations
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