Las mujeres solo quieren cuotas: la brecha de género en la acción afirmativa en la derecha chilena - Núm. 115, Julio 2023 - Colombia Internacional - Libros y Revistas - VLEX 938709425

Las mujeres solo quieren cuotas: la brecha de género en la acción afirmativa en la derecha chilena

AutorJulieta Suárez-Cao
CargoPontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Women Just Wanna Have Quotas: The Gender Divide on
Affirmative Action in the Chilean Right
Julieta Suárez-Cao
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Suárez-Cao, Julieta. 2023. “Women Just Wanna Have Quotas: The Gender Divide on Affirmative Action
in the Chilean Right.” Colombia Internacional 115: 25-55.
RECEIVED: August 22, 2022
ACCEPTED: March 12, 2023
MODIFIED: April 8, 2023
ABSTRACT. Objective/context: is article examines attitudes towards gender
quotas by right-wing leadership in Chile and assesses gender gaps in supporting
armative action. Methodology: e study uses original data from a survey of
leaders of Chile Vamos, a right-wing political alliance in Chile. A series of logistic
models with nite-sample corrections are estimated to examine the attitudes
of right-wing leaders towards gender quotas and support for armative action
policies. e models control for various demographic and political factors that may
aect attitudes towards armative action. Conclusions:e ndings for right-wing
women in Chile are similar to those for Northern democracies. Right-wing elites
show a signicant gender gap on issues related to armative action and gender
equality. Right-wing women are more likely to support armative action policies
than their male counterparts. Originality: Quotas increase women’s autonomy and
recognize that women are historically disadvantaged. e ndings of this article
support the importance of descriptive representation to the extent that attitudes of
right-wing women dier signicantly on issues close to their gender.
KEYWORDS: Chile; gender gap; gender quotas; political parties.
Las mujeres solo quieren cuotas: la brecha de género en la
acción afirmativa en la derecha chilena
RESUMEN. Objetivo/contexto: este artículo analiza las actitudes hacia las cuotas
de género entre los líderes de la derecha en Chile y evalúa la existencia de brechas de
género en el apoyo a las acciones armativas. Metodología: este estudio usa datos
originales de una encuesta de líderes de la coalición política de derecha Chile Vamos.
Se estima una serie de modelos logísticos con corrección para muestras nitas con el
n de examinar las actitudes de los líderes de la derecha hacia las cuotas de género
y el apoyo a las políticas de acción armativa. Los modelos controlan por varios
Colomb. int. 115 •  0121-5612 • e- 1900-6004
Julio-septiembre 2023 • . 25-55 •
factores demográcos y políticos que pueden afectar las actitudes hacia la acción
armativa. Conclusiones: los resultados para las mujeres de derecha en Chile son
similares a los resultados para las democracias del Norte. Las élites de derecha
tienen una brecha de género signicativa en temas relacionados con la acción
armativa y la equidad de género. Las mujeres de derecha son más propensas a
apoyar las políticas de acción armativa que sus pares masculinos. Originalidad:
las cuotas aumentan la autonomía de las mujeres y reconocen que las mujeres son
un grupo históricamente desfavorecido. Los hallazgos de este artículo respaldan la
importancia de la representación descriptiva en la medida que las preferencias de
las mujeres de derecha dieren signicativamente en temas cercanos a los intereses
de su género.
PALABRAS CLAVE: brechas de género; Chile; cuotas de género; partidos políticos.
As mulheres somente querem cotas: a lacuna de gênero na
ação afirmativa na direita chilena
RESUMO. Objetivo/contexto: neste artigo, são analisadas as atitudes sobre as cotas
de gênero das lideranças de direita no Chile e é avaliada a existência de lacunas de
gênero no apoio às ações armativas. Metodologia: este estudo usa dados originais
de uma pesquisa com líderes da coalizão política de direita Chile Vamos. Uma
série de modelos logísticos é estimada com correção para amostras nitas para
examinar as atitudes dos líderes da direita em relação às cotas de gênero e o apoio
às políticas de ação armativa. Os modelos são controlados por vários fatores
demográcos e políticos que podem afetar as atitudes quanto à ação armativa.
Conclusões: os achados para as mulheres de direita no Chile são semelhantes aos
resultados das democraci as do Norte. As elites de direita têm uma lacuna de gênero
signicativa em temas relacionados com a ação armativa e a igualdade de gênero.
As mulheres de direita são mais propensas a apoiar as políticas de ação armativa
do que seus pares masculinos. Originalidade: as cotas aumentam a autonomia das
mulheres e reconhecem que elas são um grupo historicamente desfavorecido. Os
achados deste artigo apoiam a importância da representação descritiva na medida
em que as preferências das mulheres de direita diferem signicativamente em
questões próximas aos interesses de seu gênero.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chile; cotas de gênero; lacunas de gênero; partidos políticos.
Chile presents an interesting paradox. In , it made worldwide headlines for
electing the rst Constitutional Assembly with an equal number of men and wom-
en delegates. However, it is among the latest Latin American countries to incor-
porate armative action for women in the national legislature. Chilean elites were
very reluctant to address the issue of women’s subrepresentation. From  to ,
Women Just Wanna Have Quotas: The Gender Divide on Affirmative Action in the Chilean Right
Julieta Suárez-Cao
when Argentina debuted its legislative gender quotas at the national level, seven-
teen Latin American countries enacted either gender quota systems or parity laws
(Archenti and Tula ). In , amidst a reform that overhauled the electoral
system in place since Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship, the center-le government
and women’s rights activists were able to include the prohibition for political
parties of running over   of candidacies of the same gender to have their
lists registered. e reform was pushed by President Michelle Bachelet during
her second administration (-) and resisted by the center-right coalition
in Congress. is resistance is hardly surprising, given that gender issues have
frequently been part of a leist agenda (Caul ), but also due to the scarce
presence of women in both legislative chambers.
In , Michelle Bachelet ran against Evelyn Matthei, the presidential
candidate of the then-incumbent right-wing government coalition. Ms. Matthei
explicitly underlined her opposition to gender quotas during the campaign: “I
do not believe in a quota law that requires women to be included in the ballots
regardless of their abilities. It is more important that there is the freedom to
choose among those who think like us and give incentives to overcome existing
barriers rather than having candidates imposed because of their gender.
Without incentives to foster women’s political representation, the Chilean
Congress was among the chambers with fewer women parliamentarians in
Latin America. Until the  elections, the inaugural contests for gender quota,
women represented less than   of both the Senate and the Lower House. In
congressional committees where the electoral reform was debated, dierence
between men vs. women parliamentarians was abysmal. In the Committee on
Constitutional Aairs, there was only one congresswoman out of thirteen mem-
bers, and the Committee on Financial Aairs had an all-male composition. e
balance of power among genders was similar in the Senate; all-male senators sit
on the Committee on Constitutional Aairs and the Committee on Financial
1 In Latin Ame rica, it is not so clea r-cut that le gover nments streng thened legis lated quota
provisions (Funk e t al. 2017).
2 Evelyn Mat thei was a national deputy (1990-1992, 199 4-1998), a national senator (1998-2011),
Ministr y of Labor in the conservati ve government (2011-2013), and the presidential cand idate
from the right i n 2013; she is currently the mayor of Pr ovidencia (since 2016). e quote is from
an interv iew published in a national newspap er (La Tercera 2013) .
3 Chile wa s at the 129th position in t he percentage of women leg islators, rig ht aer Libya a nd
Uzbekistan . Data from the Inte r-Parliamenta ry Union for December 2 017, http://archive.ipu.
org/ wmn- e/ar c/cla ssi f011017.htm .

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